With the help of Chemical Process Flow Diagram engineers can easily specify the general scheme of the processes and chemical plant equipment. The aqueous phase of the compositions of the present invention comprises milk or milk solids, flavorants, preservatives, and other minor suitable ingredients. The processing parameters, such as emulsion temper-ature, agitation, flow rate of emulsion, cooling temperature During the process, the heat of crystallization and the work added usually cause a temperature increase. (e) about 12% by weight other compounds mainly in the form of mono- and diglycerides. The product was formed into a stick margarine by using a square tube approximately 5 feet in length. Thermal process phosphoric acid manufacture, as shown schematically in Figure 1.2, involves three major steps: (1) combustion, (2) hydration, and (3) demisting The remaining minor oil-soluble ingredients were then added to the oils. 3.1 Flow chart for vegetable dehydration For preparation of a flow chart, first of all we have to know the sequence of operations. Furthermore, these fats are processed into emulsified spreads, such as margarines, by a method that results in uniform sizes of triglyceride crystals. 0000003557 00000 n The Process Production of Margarine and Low Fat Spreads Manufacturing process varies according to ingredients used and product formula, however, a typical process can be summarized as follows: Packing Scraped surface heat exchanger âchurnsâ product while cooling Oils pumped directly into process vessel Oil Phase Salt â¦ The product temperature was reduced from 120Â° F. (49Â° C.) to approximately 50Â° F. (10Â° C.) when passed through the first scraped surface heat exchanger. Fig. For instance, tub-type spreads typically have higher levels of soft oil while stick-type spreads have higher levels of structural fats. If sufficient solids are used to alleviate this molding problem, then upon refrigeration of the product at temperatures which would cause the second set of triglycerides to crystallize, post-hardening again will take place. Among suitable preservatives are included citric acid, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and mixtures thereof in amounts effective to prevent oxidation, bacterial and mold growth. The emulsion is discharged from unit A at a temperature of from about 65Â° F. (18Â° C.) to about 45Â° F. (7Â° C.). Load cell 82 measures the force required to punch through pad S and records it as a force curve on chart paper. Then, a second freezing occurs that sufficiently lowers the temperature to crystallize out the B' crystals. OOO, OOL, SLL, SLO) plus mono- and diglycerides, can be present. Unit A is usually set at a rotator speed of from about 100 to about 2000 rpm. Normally, these other oils are included at levels of from about 15% by weight or less, preferably at about 6% by weight or less. For margarines, the oil phase preferably comprises from about 45% to about 60% soft oil, from about 40% to about 55% structural fat, and other minor ingredients combined to produce 100% by weight. This is a Process Flow Diagram example for polymer production, which contains Process Flow Diagram shapes like tank and connectors. The high internal pressures and chilling action induce nucleation and crystallization of the emulsion. The rotator shaft is fitted with scraper blades which press against the cooled inner surface at high rotation speeds. from about 67% to about 80% at 50Â° F. (10Â° C.); from about 31% to about 58% at 70Â° F. (21Â° C.); from about 12% to about 39% at 80Â° F. (26.6Â° C.); from about 4% to about 18% at 92Â° F. (33.3Â° C.); and. TMS), shown in FIG. 55 (December, 1978), pp. Besides flow chart, another way of showing production process is using the Process Flow Diagram. Am. Working B units, in the form of picker boxes, serve to break up large crystals, producing smaller, purer triglyceride crystals. The product was pumped through a pair of scraped surface heat exchangers manufactured by the Votator Corporation. United States Patent 4568556 ... "Crystallization Processes of Fats & Their Role in Margarine Production, Parts I, II & III", Olaj. The sweet cream buttermilk concentrate and salt were then added to the aqueous phase and mixed at a temperature of 120Â° F. (49Â° C.). The preferred structural fat comprises a mixture of the following combined in a manner to generate 100% by weight: (b) from about 32% to about 50% by weight SOS triglycerides; (c) from about 6% to about 12% by weight SSO triglycerides; and. Emulsified spreads, such as margarines, are made from structural fats having double-peaked differential scanning calorimetry curves, one representing triglycerides crystallizing at temperatures of from about 77Â° F. (25Â° C.) to about 50Â° F. (10Â° C.) and a second representing triglycerides crystallizing at about 41Â° F. (5Â° C.) to about 14Â° F. (-10Â° C.). Another such fat is disclosed in British Patent Specification No. 0000003370 00000 n The solidification of oils and fats in margarine pro-cessing is not a simple process. For stick-type products, the emulsified spread, margarines in particular, either can be extruded or molded into bars via techniques known to those in the art. The picker box promotes triglyceride crystal growth within the emulsion while working the emulsion to form uniform crystal sizes. A wide variety of margarine process options are available to you, such as iso, brc. 2 represents a flow diagram of the method for making margarines and other emulsified spreads of the â¦ Although the Applicant does not want to be limited by theory, it is believed that the alleviation of the post-hardening phenomena in the emulsified spreads and margarines of the present invention is a result of separate crystallization of two distinct triglyercide crystal groups, beta (B) and beta-prime (B'). ndustry specific process diagram Application Description AD/Offshore-EN Rev. © 2004-2020 FreePatentsOnline.com. The structural fat can also contain other fats such as sucrose polyesters of fatty acids. From about 60% to about 90% of the oil phase is blended with from about 10% to about 40% aqueous phase in a manner to form 100% by weight of the emulsified spread or margarine. Then, the resultant emulsion is run through another freezing step at temperature of 30Â° F. (-1.0Â° C.). Swern, D., "Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products", Interscience Publ., N.Y., 3rd Ed., 1964, pp. %PDF-1.4 %���� An important characteristic of the structural fat of the present invention is its melting profile. profile. This emulsion is then chilled to a temperature of from about 77Â° F. (25Â° C.) to about 45Â° F. (7Â° C.), preferably from about 60Â° F. (15Â° C.) to about 45Â° F. (7Â° C.), most preferably from about 55Â° F. (13Â° C.) to about 50Â° F. (10Â° C.). The resulting emulsion was then pumped into another picker box for a residence time of 1 minute at a shaft speed of approximately 100 rpm. One skilled in the art can easily recognize the SPE's which can be used. The term "emulsified spread" refers to a solid or plastic water-in-oil emulsion. The other remaining oil phase ingredients were added to this blend and heated in a jacketed tank to 120Â° F. (49Â° C.). The product of the present invention was made according to Example I using the freeze-pick-freeze-pick method. Alternatively, with only a single cooling step, the temperature can be at a range at which only the higher temperature crystallizing triglycerides solidify. (a) forming an emulsion of from about 60% to about 90% of a melted oil phase and from about 10% to about 40% of an aqueous phase, wherein said oil phase comprises from about 35% to about 70% of a structural fat comprising a mixture of triglycerides, one crystallizing at about 77Â° F. (25Â° C.) to about 50Â° F. (10Â° C.) and the second crystallizing at about 41Â° F. (5Â° C.) to about 14Â° F. (-10Â° C.), and from about 30% to about 65% of a soft oil; (b) cooling said emulsion to a temperature between from about 77Â° F. (25Â° C.) to about 45Â° F. (7Â° C.) for at least 0.5 minutes; (c) working the cooled emulsion of step (b) for from about 0.1 hour to about 1 hour; (d) cooling the worked emulsion of step (c) to a temperature of between from about 14Â° F. (-10Â° C.) to about 41Â° F. (5Â° C.) for from 0.2 to about 2 minutes; and. "Freeze" refers to the process whereby an emulsion is chilled in any cooling device such as a scraped surface heat exchanger or an A unit in margarine processing. Milk or milk solids usually constitutes the major ingredient of the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was prepared by dissolving the non-fat dry milk solids in distilled water, followed by the addition with mixing of the other aqueous phase ingredients. 0000002594 00000 n Other fats which have this characteristic crystallization profile and which are useful as the structural fat of the present invention include palm stearin. With reference to FIG. 4,217,372 and 4,087,565 to Ebskamp, issued Aug. 12, 1980 and May 2, 1978, respectively, disclose methods for improving the physical structure of fats in a margarine wherein the margarines are cooled, then mechanically worked and cooled again to a temperature lower than the first cooling. Surprisingly, it has been found that a margarine that does not exhibit the post-hardening problem can be made from a margarine fat that contains fractionated palm oil and/or palm stearin. Pasteurization (zone 3), 4. Total residence time within unit A is at least 0.5 minutes, preferably ranging from about 0.5 minutes to about 2 minutes. Example II was made with the following ingredients: A margarine blend was prepared by heating the palm and soybean oils to 125Â° F. (52Â° C.). These pads are equilibrated at 40Â° F. (4Â° C.) by submergence in a constant temperature waterbath for at least an hour. 0000001334 00000 n Thus, relatively few references address processing changes to alleviate the problem. Learn English with Emma [engVid] Recommended for you. The designation of fatty acids throughout the specification are P=palmitic, St=stearic, O=oleic, L=linoleic, S=saturated fatty acid, U=unsaturated fatty acid, C16 fatty acid is palmitic, and C18 fatty acid is stearic. In margarine manufacturing processes (see Figure 2 as an example of a margarine production process consisting of different unit operations) it has been observed that variations in rework flow, caused by variations in packaging capacity, and switching between pre-mix vessels cause temperature fluctuations in the process â¦ All percentages are by weight of total product unless indicated to the contrary. The following flowchart example shows how to manage a project. Melting profile is measured by the solids content of a fat at a particular temperature. (d) from about 20% to about 32% by weight SOO/SLS triglycerides, wherein S=saturated C16 or C18 fatty acid residue, O=oleic acid residue, and L=linoleic acid residue. For instance, palm oils have long been of interest for use as margarines because of their relatively low costs and preferred triglyceride compositions. China margarine processing line - find detail processed margarine, margarine production process from wenzhou longqiang dairy machinery factory The oil and aqueous emulsion is chilled to a temperature of 40Â° F. (4.4Â° C.). Additionally, margarines can be formulated to be lower in cholesterol than buffer, which is a benefit for the many individuals concerned with high-cholesterol diets. The shear stress of the final product was approximately 6 shear stress units. The designation "C48, C50, C52 and C54 " refer to the total number of carbon atoms of the combined fatty acid residues attached to the glyceride. Margarines spread more easily than butter. When S=C16 or C18, the triglyceride SSS can be tripalmitin, tristearin, 1,3-dipalmitylstearin, 1,2-dipalmitylstearin, 1,3-distearylpalmitin or 1,2-distearylpalmitin. This method involves (1) cooling a fat and water emulsion to a temperature below the nucleation point of the triglycerides crystallizing at the higher temperature range, (2) promoting crystal growth by working the margarine emulsion thereby causing these triglycerides to crystallize into uniform size crystals, (3) cooling the emulsion to a temperature below the nucleation point of the second group of triglycerides which crystallize at the lower temperature range, and (4) promoting uniform crystal growth by a second working step. 3,189,465 to Oakley et al, issued June 15, 1965, relates to a margarine wherein at least a major portion of the fat consists of one or more lower melting fractions of a semi-soft oil, e.g. compression load cell 82 (measuring force generated) mounted on a base 84. The main component of the oil phase is the structural fat. less than about 7% at 105Â° F. (40.5Â° C.). DSC was carried out in a duPont Model 990 thermal analyzer connected to a Model 910 differential scanning calorimeter. Packing and remelting (zone 5) Low fat spreads have similar ingredients, however the oil content can be as low as 20%. endstream endobj 886 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[665 201]/Length 32/Size 866/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream 0000001518 00000 n METHODS FOR MEASURING PROPERTIES OF OILS USED IN EMULSIFIED SPREADS AND. Fishbone diagrams are successfully used in various fields of industries and manufacturing to analyze the set of possible causes and their effects. Conventional margarine processing of the structural fats of this invention results in the occurrence of post-hardening in the product generated. Levels of from about 35% to about 70% of this fat are used in combination with a soft oil to form the oil phase of the present invention. The continuous-flow process is the most commonly used method in the manufacture of margarine. The entire fixture 88 sits on load plate 104 of load cell 82. For a non-browning spread, the milk solids or reducing sugars in the milk solids are eliminated. With only a single cooling step, the temperaure is usually low enough to crystallize all the triglycerides present, resulting in rapid nucleation and crystallization of all the triglycerides on the initial nuclei. B MP Separator LP Separator Oil Heater Flare Gas Compressor LP Compressor MP Compressor Surge Vessel Produced Water Surge Drum To Platform Unit Hydro Separator With over 35 years of experience in oil and gas production level â¦ www.entrepreneurindia.co 13. DSC is a thermal analysis technique which quantitatively measures the differential heat flow (in millicalories per second) between a sample and a reference material, as a function of linearly programmed temperature (Â°C.) describe a thermal fraction method for producing a palm mid-fraction which is then hydrogenated. 0000001699 00000 n h�b```b``�a�b`�t`f@ a6v&~ƆF��qO���h��s5DV*|w�*�*f��ɻY�f�bދ[U������i�ɐ�&���u��9ŵ�)�����z!3���˘�}���}AO�i�Q�I+��R �,��8�X���(X����x���L���� �upE�����I@GX�I�$0Z@�'� ,��Xʱ��`A���Ȏ�k��j����M�AH�1p��5�u��C[�������}[=*m��,`��P�`� �`���������D�� "����� �2�� � l � \l'���1�1� ii`������5�!����v���3��K�5=Z ���� ;C\)0�3�U\2�x���i*�l> ��.�I|���|fQ -��vs��`5ѣ9�rO���M��e��@�3�fAt2�0 ֠�� from about 5% to about 12% by weight C48 triglycerides; from about 40% to about 55% by weight C50 triglycerides; from about 23% to about 35% by weight C52 triglycerides; from about 5% to about 10% by weight C54 triglycerides; and up to 12% other glycerides, mainly mono- and di-glycerides. The margarines and emulsified spreads of the present invention are processed by a method characterized as "freeze-pick-freeze-pick". Am. The rotor rotates at speeds of from about 50 to about 1000 rpm. A "double-peaked" differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve designates a structural fat having two distinct crystallization peaks, a triglyceride group crystallizing at from about 77Â° F. (25Â° C.) to about 50Â° F. (10Â° C.) and another triglyceride group crystallizing at from about 41Â° F. (5Â° C.) to about 14Â° F. (-10Â° C.). One example is found in U.S. Pat. The following examples are specific embodiments of the product of the present invention and method for its preparation, but are not intended to limit it. As with other differential thermal analyses, DSC measures every chemical reaction or physical change which liberates or absorbs heat. The shaft speed was approximately 100 rpm. Preservatives are also included in the aqueous phase. When using fractionated palm oil or palm stearin, slow crystallizing materials, a relatively long picking time is required to get complete crystallization. 0000011282 00000 n The results are shown graphically in FIG. the flow chart may look somewhat like as in Fig. These lower melting fractions can be obtained by a single thermal fractionation in which the higher melting fraction containing the trisaturated glycerides is removed. The emulsified spreads and margarines of the present invention comprise from about 60% to about 90% by weight of an oil phase and from about 10% to about 40% by weight of an aqueous phase combined in a manner to produce 100% by weight of the composition. Residence time in the second picker box ranges from about 1 minute to about 10 minutes with a rotor speed of 50 to 1000 rpm. 0000100275 00000 n Residence time in this exchanger totalled about 0.75 minute. Fixture 88 is then placed on load plate 104 of load cell 82 and the load cell is then tared. 0000007478 00000 n The preferred fats of the present invention include a palm oil mid-fraction prepared by double thermal fractionation of palm oil. In the present invention, however, the first cooling crystallizes only B crystals. The fat phase consists of both liquid oil and crystalline fat. Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is a commonly used chart in chemical engineering and process engineering demonstrating the ongoing production flow of chemicals and other types of equipment involved. 0000004893 00000 n No. process. After crystallization of both triglyceride groups, the emulsified spread is packed in either tub or stick form. FIG. Shoe Polish Uses and Applications Formulation of Different Type of Shoe Polish Black Boot Polish Dark Tan Polish Concentrated Liquid Shoe Polish (Black) Manufacturing Process Coloured Polishes Process Flow Diagram. These margarines, although better than margarines made from palm oil alone, do not exhibit thermal stability, and more importantly, are extremely brittle and hard to spread. Next, the emulsion is crystallized in unit B, preferably a picker box. The SS test utilizes an Instron Universal Testing Machine (Model No. The product was then pumped into a picker box set at 100 rpm for a residence time of 13 minutes. Preferably, from about 45% to about 60% of the soft oil is combined with from about 40% to about 55% of the structural fat in order to form the oil phase of a margarine. In addition of the structural fat described above, the oil phase of the present emulsified spreads also contains one or more soft oils at levels of from about 30% to about 65% by weight of the oil phase. The Procter & Gamble Company (Cincinnati, OH). Shear stress measurements were performed at periodic time intervals up to 90 days. Fully mature, unripe mangos are harvested and shifted to the cannery where they are allowed to ripen in a closed atmosphere. Fixture 88 also has a cylindrical bore in the form of die 100 over which sample S sits. The amount of these polyesters present will depend upon their solid fat content. Antioxidants such as BHA (butylated hydroxy anisol) and BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene) can also be added to the oil phase. Crystal growth is the second. 2). The product was then run through a third scraped surface heat exchanger with a residence time of approximately 0.75 minute. 4 represents two curves. These fats have a characteristic double-peaked differential scanning calorimetry curve as represented in FIG. Other cooling devices such as shell and tube exchangers or thin-walled heat exchangers can be used, if desired. It is an object of the present invention, therefore, to provide emulsified spreads such as margarines having desirable mouth texture and thermal stability, with good spreadability due to the avoidance of post-hardening. <]/Prev 952971/XRefStm 1334>> The term "structural fat" refers to a fat which is characterized by a double-peak in the differential scanning calorimeter. A process flow diagram (PFD) is a diagram commonly used in chemical and process engineering to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment. Preferably for margarines, at least 80% by weight oil phase is blended with up to 20% by weight aqueous phase. It was formed into 1/4-pound sticks and wrapped. This fixture 88 has a cylindrical bore in the form of a punch guide 92 for sliding of punch 74. Other aqueous phase ingredients include flavorants such as salt and other water-soluble flavors. The Votator shafts were turning at approximately 1500 rpm. This oil phase, which is completely melted, then is blended with the aqueous phase ingredients. 827,172 to Best et al., published Feb. 3, 1960, which relates to a method for making a cocoa butter substitute by a two-step solvent fractionation of palm oil. Loading ... How to describe a process - Duration: 22:49. h�bbb�������8J� �q�h��80 !�+ 331-352. Manufacturing Process Process Flow Diagram 12. 0 This working period requires from about 0.1 to about 1 hour working, preferably 0.2 hours to 0.4 hours. The fats used in this invention are characterized by a double-peaked differential scanning calorimetry curve representing two distinctly crystallizing triglyceride groups. You can quickly link them to other visual assets like wireframes, mockups, charts, and graphs â all within the same Moqups project! This tube is cooled externally by liquid ammonia, brine or other refrigerants. Alibaba.com offers 852 margarine process products. Examples of oils which can be interesterified, either alone or by apropriate blending, are palm oil, sunflower oil and safflower oil. Or in other words, we can know the proper sequence of operations and better understand the process, if we have a flow chart of the process. Varying the amount of the structural fat and soft oil affects the physical properties of the emulsified spreads. Process Flow Diagram Of Margarine Manufacturing search in title. 0000000751 00000 n PBD: Process block diagram (e) up to about 3% by weight of other fatty acid residues, such as myristic acid residues; wherein said fat has a P:St ratio of about 8.5 or more, and an O:L ratio of about 3.5 more. The triglyceride composition of this fat can be determined by several techniques. 53 (June, 1976), pp. This is the production & process covering most of the important procedure and some analysis about production of margarine based on 'SAJI' cookin oil. SS values over 10 indicate unacceptable products. 0000002229 00000 n Preparation of the water phase and the fat phase (zone 1), 2. Unfortunately, standard margarine processing techniques often result in a post-hardening effect which makes these palm-based margarine products very hard and brittle. If the crsytallization time is not sufficient to crystallize substantially all of the triglycerides, crystallization will continue after the working step. up to about 3% of other fatty acid residues. Following the second cooling, the emulsion is again worked, usually in a picker box, to promote additional crystal growth of the second, lower temperature range crystallizing triglyceride group. By "sucrose polyesters of fatty acids" or "SPE's" is meant esters of sucrose in which from 6 to 8 of the hydroxyl groups are esterified with fatty acids having from 10 to 20 carbons. trailer Cooling is carried out at about the crystallization temperature range of the second peak, at about 41Â° F. (5Â° C.) to about 14Â° F. (-10Â° C.), preferably at about 35Â° F. (2Â° C.) to about 14Â° F. (-10Â° C.). It is this difference in crystallization that is believed to account for the post-hardening phenomenon. Coloring agents, such as beta-carotene, and oil soluble flavors are also added to the oil phase at levels desired and known by those skilled in the art. However, if this second picking step is eliminated, complete crystallization of the second triglyceride species will not occur. Preferably, the P:St ratio will range from about 9 to about 10, and the O:L ratio will range from about 4 to about 5. This product was then pumped through a picker box having a shaft speed of approximately 100 rpm, with residence time of 13 minutes. The analysis was carried out in â¦ 507,403, filed June The desgnations "SSS, SOS, SLS, SSO and SOO" refer to trisaturated, symmetrical mono-unsaturated, symmetrical di-unsaturated, asymmetrical mono-unsaturated and asymmetrical di-unsaturated triglycerides, respectively. (e) working the cooled emulsion of step (d) for from about 1 to about 10 minutes. Picking time required here is shorter than the first since this is a faster crystallization. The results are shown graphically in FIG. Post-hardening over time occurs due to the propensity of the specific triglyceride species to exist in a pure crystalline form. Usually it takes about three to four days to ripen the â¦ Examples of such fats and oils include palm oil and interesterified oils or blends of various oils, either by random or directed interesterification. A Flowchart showing Flowchart for wine production. Besides chilling the emulsified fat, the high local pressure and shearing action of the A unit induces fast nucleation and crystallization of the triglycerides during the short residence time (0.5 to 60 seconds). 0000133322 00000 n 2 ï¼Welding processï¼ ï¼Coatingï¼ Cleaning / Packaging / Labeling â¦ The product was then passed into a third scraped surface heat exchanger where its temperature was reduced from 60Â° F. (16Â° C.) to 32Â° F. (0Â° C.). FIG. 4. It is this heat differential that is recorded. No. 0000099910 00000 n Heat then was transferred through the disc into the sample and reference chamber. 3.1. For instance, margarines are lower in cost than butter, while providing many of the same taste characteristics of butter. 1. A product is made as in Example I, except that the final working step is eliminated. There are characterized by a shear stress value of from about 3 to about 10. The aqueous phase was then added to the oil phase, and the temperature of this emulsion was maintained at approximately 120Â° F. (49Â° C.). Ten Â±0.5 mg. samples, a reference and the fat, were placed in the sample aluminum cups and positioned in the center of an encapsulated cell. Download this Premium Vector about Infographic element with icons and 6 options or steps. Preferably, safflower oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, and mixtures thereof are used, with soybean oil being most preferred. And the total residence time in unit A for the second cooling is 0.2 to 2 minutes, preferably 0.2 to 1 minute. However, even these margarines exhibit some deficiency. 0000001735 00000 n good mouth texture, thermal stability and good spreadability, many economically desirable starting materials have been tried without success. Information about the history, chemistry, manufacture, and storage of butter. Pike et al. This structural fat is comprised of fats or oils which are mixtures of triglycerides having two distinct crystallization ranges, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). 0000000016 00000 n Emulsified fat spreads, especially margarines, provide many benefits which make such spreads highly desirable as butter substitutes. copending patent application Ser. Even more significant is the fact that the SS of a product made in accordance with the present invention reached an SS value of only 6 at 90 days. The carbon number profile (CNP) indicates the percentage of triglycerides having a certain number of carbon atoms for the combined fatty acid residues attached to the glyceride. The process for forming such spreads involves (1) cooling an emulsion of the structural fat, a soft oil and an aqueous phase to a temperature at or below the nucleation of triglycerides crystallizing at the higher temperature range; (2) working the emulsion; (3) cooling the worked emulsion to the nucleation point of the triglycerides crystallizing at the lower temperature range; and (4) working the emulsion a second time.
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